Chapter 36. Movement and locomotion
1. Muscular system, skeletal system and nervous systems. (Indirectly also breathing and circulatory systems).
2. The legs marked with arrows have just moved forward. They now remain stationary to support the beetle while the other three move forward together.
3. The tail fin continues the sideways thrusts of the body to give a final flick to the forward propulsion.
The median fins (dorsal, ventral and anal) reduce the sideways roll of the body.
The paired fins, (pectoral and pelvic) control the upwards or downwards direction of movement and assist in the turning movements.
4. The extensor muscles are the ones which thrust against the ground to produce the forward motion. The flexors only have to restore the limb to its flexed position.
5. a To achieve lift during flapping flight the large flight muscles (pectoral) contract and pull the extended wing downwards. Air resistance to this movement and the air-flow pattern over the wing produces lift.
b During gliding flight the bird has to lose height with its wings extended, relying on the air flow over the wing surface to achieve lift. Prolonged lift can be achieved only by making use of upward air currents.
1. Provided that the plant can reach water and receive sunlight, it can make all the food it needs while staying in the same place.
2. Sexual reproduction produces seeds which may be dispersed over great distances.
3. Sleep movements might help to decrease transpiration (at night?) or reduce frost damage. They might prevent loss of pollen at times when insects are not active.
4. Folding leaflets could be a protective measure in tropical rain. It could make the leaves unattractive to herbivores or inaccessible to insects.
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Section 1, Chapters 1-5
Section 2, Chapters 6-9
Section 3, Chapters 10-12
Section 3, Chapters 13-17
Section 3, Chapters 18-20
Section 4, Chapters 21-24
Section 5, Chapters 25-27
Section 5, Chapters 28-29
Section 6, Chapters 30-34
Section 6, Chapters 35-37
Section 7, Chapters 38-39
Section 8, Chapters 40-41